Database Management Basics

Database Management Basics

Database management is a system for managing information that aids the business operations of an organization. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications and modifying it as needed and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted by unexpected failures. It is an element of a company’s total informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making, corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) which enabled the storage and retrieve huge amounts of data for a variety of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a collection of tables that organizes data according to the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table has a set of attributes, or fields, that provide information about data entities. The most well-known type of database that is currently in use is a relational model, created by E. F. «Ted» Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It also makes it simpler to update data without the need to update many sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can accommodate multiple types of databases through different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level concerns costs, scalability and other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the way the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a mixture of different external views based on different data models and can include virtual tables that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.

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